کلید تبحر و مهارت یابی در نگارش به زبان انگلیسی، نوشتن مقاله یا انشای ۵ پاراگرافی است. اگر شما هم در نگارش با مشکل روبرو هستید از این روش استفاده کنید و سعی کنید موضوعات ساده ای را انتخاب کنید و در الگوی زیر قرار دهید. پس از چند بار نوشتن به این روش که البته بایستی با پشتکار و ممارست شما همراه باشد، غول نوشتن به زبان انگلیسی شکسته خواهد شد. ضمناً کتابهای زیر به عنوان منابع مطالب زیر معرفی میشود:
1-The Practical Writer With Readings 2- The English You Need to Know
همانطور که گفته شد، برای نوشتن مطلب یا موضوع مورد نظر خود، بایستی مطلب خود را در ۵ پاراگراف بنویسیم. این پنج پاراگراف را به این شکل تفکیک و تعریف می کنیم:
پاراگراف اول یا مقدمه، که شامل Motivator (همانطور که از اسمش پیداست، هدفش صرفاً ایجاد انگیزش در مخاطب برای مطالعه مطلب است)، Thesis Statement (جمله اصلی که حاوی نظر، عقیده و منظور کل مطلب نویسنده میشود) و Blueprint (خلاصه ای از نکات اصلی است که می خواهیم در مقاله خود به آن بپردازیم. با توجه به اینکه مقاله یا انشای 5 پاراگرافی، 3 پاراگراف اصلی دارد باید سه Blueprint برای 3 پاراگراف داشته باشیم).
پاراگرافهای دوم، سوم و چهارم یا پاراگرافهای اصلی که شامل یک جمله اصلی یا همان Blueprint و یک تا 3 جمله در رابطه با جمله اول پاراگراف ما میباشد که به Support معروف است.
پاراگراف پنجم یا نتیجه گیری، که شامل Reworded Topic Sentence (تکرار جمله اصلی یا فرضیه نویسنده)، clincher (قطع کننده یا خاتمه دهنده به مطلب، جمله ای که برای خواننده شکی باقی نمیگذارد که مطلب به پایان رسیده است.
مطلب زیر در مورد "شوخ طبعی کودکان"بر اساس الگوی مقاله ۵ پاراگرافی تهیه شده است کاربرد موضوعاتی که در مورد آن توضیح داده شده را میتوانید در اینجا ببینید:
Motivator: Do you realize that newly born children are not even aware that parts of their bodies belong to them? I learned this fascinating fact in my psychology course from a book that says a baby "lies on his back,kiking his heels and watching the little fists flying past his face. But only very slowly does he come to know that they are attached to him and he can control them. Children have a lot of learning to do before they can see the world - and themselves - through grown-p eyes. Thesis Statement: As children pass through this remarkable process of growing up, they often do some humorous things, Blueprint: especially in learning to speak, in discovering that all objects do not have human characteristics, and in trying to imitate others around them.
Topic Sentence: Not surprisingly, one area in which children are often humorous is in learning to speak. Specific Support: I remember one time I was talking to a friend on the phone while my little sister, Betsy, seemed to be playing inattentively in the floor nearby. After I hung up, Betsy asked me, "Why is the teacher going to give Janet an old tomato?" At first I couldn't figure out what she was talking about. When I asked her what she meant, she said, "You said if Janet doesn't hand in her homework, the teacher is going to give her an old tomato." Finally I caught on. The word I had used was ultimatum !
Topic Sentence: Children can also be funny in the way they "humanize" the objects aroud them. Specific Support: According to my psychology book, "Up to four or five years old, the child believes anything may be endowed with purpose and conscious activity. A ball may refuse to be thrown straight, or a 'naughty' chair may be responsible for bumping him." I can remember a time , when Betsy stood at the top of the stairs and yelled to her shoes at the bottom, "Shoes! Get up here!"
Topic Sentence: Another way in which children are sometimes funny is in their attempts to imitate what they see around them. All children look pretty silly when they dress up like their mothers and fathers and play "house".Specific Support: My psychology book tells of more interesting example, though. The famous psychologist Jean Piaget wrote of the time his 16 month-old daughter quietly watched a visiting little boy throw a tantrum in trying to get out of his playpen. Piaget's daughter thought it would be fun to try the same thing: "The next day, she herself screamed in her play-pen and tried to move it, stamping her foot lightly several times in succession. The imitation of the whole scene was most striking".
Reworded Thesis Little children are funny creatures to watch, aren't they? But as we laugh, Clincher: We have to admire, too, because the humorous mistakes are but temporary side trips that children take on the amazingly complicated journey to maturity – a long way from the beginning, where they lay in wonder, silently watching the strange, fingered spacecraft passing, back and forth, before their infant eyes.
تفکیک جملات اصلی در چارچوب الگوی مورد بحث نیز به شکل زیر نشان داده شده است:
Motivator Children have many things to learn and adjust to as they grow up – including the awareness of the parts of their bodies.
Thesis Children often do humorous things.
Blueprint They're often do humorous in learning to speak, in discovering that all objects do not have human characteristics, and in attempting to imitate others.
First Central Paragraph
Topic Sentence Children are often humorous in learning to speak.
Specefic Support Betsy mistook ultimatum for old tomato.
Second Central Paragraph
Topic Sentence Children "humanize" the objects around them.
Specefic Support Book says children blame balls and chairs as though the things were conscious.
Specefic Support I thought the sun was out to get me.
Specefic Support Betsy ordered her shoed to climb the stairs.
Third Central Paraghraph
Topic Sentence Children attempt to imitate what they see.
Specefic Support They dress like their parents.
Specefic Support Piaget's daughter imitated a tantrum a visiting child threw.
Reworded Thesis Children are funny creatures to watch.
Clincher Reminder of the motivator that children have a lot of learning and adjusting to do.